[2][8] Their diet is also unique, containing unusual items like caterpillars and conifer cones. ActiveWild.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for website owners to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon stores. they have a narrower maxillary incisor row; the distance across the palate at the first molars are narrower; there is a smaller horizontal length between the mandibular symphysis; the width of the ascending ramus located in the mandible. The entirety of the species is found in an area of about 1,000 km2 (390 sq mi) at elevations from 300 to 1,300 m (980 to 4,300 ft). Orangutans are among the most intelligent primates. Though the Bornean orangutans are close to the Tapanuli orangutan in features, the Tapanuli orangutan have flattened faces, smaller head sizes, as well as frizzier hair on their bodies. It is found in hilly terrain and on the foothills of mountains. [2], The specific name, tapanuliensis, as well as the common name, Tapanuli orangutan, refer to Tapanuli, the hilly region in North Sumatra where the species lives. The species was given the name Tapanuli orangutan, after the region in which it was discovered. Deforestation In 2006, Indonesia had the world's highest deforestation rate. Go straight to the information you need using the menu below: Orangutans are large, tree-dwelling apes with distinctive red hair and long, powerful limbs. [2] It is one of three known species of orangutan, alongside the Sumatran orangutan (P. abelii), found farther northwest on the island, and Bornean orangutan (P. pygmaeus). This is probably due to the presence of Sumatran tigers in the area. Males also have long moustaches. The Tapanuli orangutan (Pongo tapanuliensis), is the newest described species of orangutans. Orangutans may lose nearly all their tropical forest habitat within 15 years, unless urgent action is taken now, to end rampant illegal logging. Like the other great apes, orangutans are highly intelligent, displaying tool use and distinct cultural patterns in the wild. Nurcahyo, Meijaard, Nowak, Fredriksson & Groves, 2017, Males of each orangutan species (from left to right): Bornean, Sumatran, Tapanuli. As a result, the discovery and description of the species took a relatively long period. Much of the orangutan’s natural home has been cleared to make way for palm oil plantations. What Is Biodiversity And Why Is It Important? [2][10], Genetic comparisons show that Tapanuli orangutans diverged from Sumatran orangutans about 3.4 million years ago, and became more isolated after the Lake Toba eruption that occurred about 75,000 years ago. I also love the pointy hair!!!! Of all the great apes, orangutans spend the greatest amount of time in the trees. The cheek pads of male Tapanuli orangutans are flatter than those of other orangutans, and are covered in downy blonde hair. As the sea level rose, the islands became cut off from one another. Interestingly, female Tapanuli orangutans sport beards while their male counterparts have a pronounced moustache. Flying Squirrels Facts: Meet The Gliding Rodents Of North America! There are three isolated populations of Tapanuli orangutan. [2][9] Comparisons of the genomes of all 37 orangutans using principal component analysis and population genetic models also indicated that the Batang Toru population is a separate species. [2][3][8] They had continued sporadic contact that stopped between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago. The Tapanuli orangutan is found in Sumatra. In addition to habitat loss, orangutans are killed as agricultural pests and hunted for the pet trade. It was described as a distinct species in 2017. A full-grown Tapanuli orangutan is a large animal and has few natural predators. They have frizzier hair, smaller heads, and flatter and wider faces than the other species. Current Biology, November 2017. The discovery of the Tapanuli orangutan brings the total number of orangutans up to three: Male Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli Orangutans. This is supported by the genomes of the two Tapanuli orangutan individuals, which show signs of inbreeding. [2] The skull and teeth of the Batang Toru male differ significantly from those of the other two orangutan species. News and facts about animals, natural history and science. [2] The skull and teeth of the Batang Toru male differ significantly from those of the other two orangutan species. Tapanuli orangutans resemble Sumatran orangutans more than Bornean orangutans in body build and fur color. Females are more social than males, and may tolerate other related females living nearby. We have created a browser extension. The area in which it is found covers just 1,000 km2 (386 sq. Bornean, 2. All orangutans have been badly affected by deforestation and are now critically endangered. The Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) inhabits large portions of Borneo, whereas the Sumatran orangutan (P. abelii) and the Tapanuli orangutan (P. tapanuliensis) are limited to northern Sumatra. An international team of researchers has just described a new great ape species, the Tapanuli orangutan (Pongo tapanuliensis). [7] Pongo tapanuliensis was identified as a distinct species, following a detailed phylogenetic study in 2017. [2] It is one of three known species of orangutan, alongside the Sumatran orangutan (P. abelii), found farther northwest on the island, and Bornean orangutan (P. pygmaeus). Often, empty nests are spotted but it is very rare to find the orangutans therein. This means that is able to use its feet, as well as its hands, to hold onto branches. Nasution, A., et al. Tapanuli orangutans diverged from Bornean orangutans about 674,000 years ago. Three researchers of the Institute of Evolutionary Biology, Jaume Bertranpetit, Marc de Manuel and Tomàs Marquès-Bonet are among the authors of the study, published in Current Biology. The Tapanuli orangutan, like all orangutans, has opposable thumbs on both its hands and feet. © 2017-2020 New England Primate Conservancy. Tapanuli orangutan facts, pictures and information. mi. Both male and female Tapanuli orangutans have beards but with Bornean orangutans, only the males do. Tapanuli orangutans are extremely imperiled species. With only 800 individuals alive, Tapanuli orangutans are therefore the most endangered ape species. The genomes of 37 wild orangutans have been studied in the CNAG-CRG, in Barcelona, this being the largest study of this kind carried out to date. Sumatran orangutans split from Tapanuli orangutans around 3.4 million years ago. [2][10], Genetic comparisons show that Tapanuli orangutans diverged from Sumatran orangutans about 3.4 million years ago, and became more isolated after the Lake Toba eruption that occurred about 75,000 years ago. tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Programme, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T120588639A120588662.en, "Morphometric, Behavioral, and Genomic Evidence for a New Orangutan Species", "Newly discovered orangutan species is also the most endangered", "New Species of Orangutan Is Rarest Great Ape on Earth", "New great ape species found, sparking fears for its survival", "New species of orangutan discovered in Sumatra – and is already endangered", "Hydroelectric Dam Threatens to Wipe Out World's Rarest Ape", "Tapanuli Orangutan Facts, Pictures & Information For Kids & Adults". It will enhance any encyclopedic page you visit with the magic of the WIKI 2 technology. [2][8] The holotype is stored in the Zoological Museum of Bogor. They can also be found in agroforest – forest that has been grown near crops. (It’s completely free, you can unsubscribe at any time, and we’ll never share your details.). This was achieved by studying this orangutan’s genome, together with the genome of other 36 wild orangutans, this being the largest genomic study of wild orangutans carried out to date. [4], An isolated population of orangutans in the Batang Toru area of South Tapanuli was reported in 1939. That's it. [2] The holotype of the species is the complete skeleton of an adult male from Batang Toru who died after being wounded by locals in November 2013. The islands of Sumatra and Borneo once formed part of a larger landmass called Sundaland. Image: Tapanuli orangutan - Andrew Walmsley, © Universitat Pompeu Fabra Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea! One Belt One Road initiative of China is endangering Tapanuli Orangutan - Current Affairs 2018. The Tapanuli orangutan differs from the other two existing orangutan species in several spec… All Rights Reserved. There is strong anthropogenic pressure on the Tapanuli orangutan due to conversion of pristine forest for mining, plans to build a hydroelectric dam, hunting, and general human encroachment. Ecology and behaviour. [12], The loud, long-distance call or 'long call' of male Tapanuli orangutans has a higher maximum frequency than that of Sumatran orangutans, and lasts much longer and has more pulses than that of Bornean orangutans. The survival of this rare species of great apes is hard due to conflict with humankind, wildlife trade, logging, and hunting. In 2017, the population was recognized as being a separate species. Tapanuli orangutans resemble Sumatran orangutans more than Bornean orangutans in body build and fur color. Together with the Sumatran orangutan and Tapanuli orangutan, it belongs to the only genus of great apes native to Asia. In the wild, orangutans have been observed using tools. The Tapanuli orangutan’s diet is similar to that of other orangutan species—they eat a lot of fruit, leaves, saplings, buds, and small insects; however, this is the only species known to eat pinecones and caterpillars. Both male and female Tapanuli orangutans have beards but with Bornean orangutans, only the males do.