Police have formally named three male suspects in the brutal killing in Kapuas Hulu district, in the Indonesian part of Borneo island, while another seven are being questioned as witnesses to the crime. Performed the experiments: DB YH KM SSUA AN AT DPrasetyo NN LC MA FA INGA DA AD EE PG TPI KK CM CWPP YP DPuspitasari MSWP AR HR JS DS MS NA HW JAW EM. Informations sur votre appareil et sur votre connexion Internet, y compris votre adresse IP, Navigation et recherche lors de l’utilisation des sites Web et applications Verizon Media. No, Is the Subject Area "Religion" applicable to this article? Follow Chris Ciaccia on Twitter @Chris_Ciaccia, Chimpanzee violent attacks are on the rise, International Union for Conservation of Nature. The majority of respondents were classified as of Dayak origin (66%; Dayak is a collective name for indigenous ethnic groups, mostly from the interior of Borneo), followed by Malay, Banjar and Kutai people who are predominantly coastal (17%), immigrants (17%; consisting of Javanese, Balinese, Buginese and others), and formerly nomadic people (<1%; Punan and Orang Ut). The potential biases mentioned at the start of the Discussion may impact on the estimated conflict and killing rates. Legal Statement. SuaR Institute, Nanga Pinoh, Indonesia, Affiliation It is illegal in Uganda to kill chimps, but occasionally permission is granted if a male chimp goes rogue, The Sun reported. Finally, at the analysis stage, care must be taken to assess data quality, develop appropriate metrics, deal with missing data, choose appropriate statistical methods and models for estimation and inference, assess the sensitivity of the results and inferences, and produce accurate estimates of population-level variables, based on the sample statistics. Friends of the National Park Foundation (FNFP), Kumai, Indonesia, Affiliation The village-level factors in the GLM models included population size for each village (answered in two ways, as number of families or number of people), dominant religion for each village (based on interview data), size of a village area, population density for each village (population size per size of village area), and dominant professional occupation (based on interview data). Based on the photos of orangutans and similar looking primate species, 17% of all respondents could not reliably identify an orangutan. At the conversion frontier and in highly degraded forest areas, human-wildlife conflicts are common, because animals are being restricted into increasingly small forest fragments [4], [5], [6] and increasing human density adds further pressure in the forest transition zone. Powered and implemented by FactSet Digital Solutions. Based on the reported number of orangutans killed by reliable individual respondents at any time in their lives, the total number of orangutans killed per year is 2540 (95% CI 1970-3100). In the unlikely event that an orangutan could be provoked into violence, the human would stand no chance. We also used contextual information to change codes or fill in blanks. World Wide Fund for Nature Indonesia, Pontianak, Indonesia, Affiliation Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Borneo Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation Institute (BEBSiC), Samarinda, Indonesia, Affiliation Chimps are humans' closest living relatives, sharing "at least 94 [percent] of its DNA," according to the UWA. The boundaries of logging concessions and timber estates were obtained from production forest distribution maps [16] and oil palm plantation boundaries were obtained from data provided by the Ministry of Agriculture [17]. In contrast, in the same group of respondents, the killing rate was much lower among those who reported that orangutans were protected by Indonesian law (8%) compared with those who reported that they were not (19%) and those who did not know (13%). The survey involved collaboration by 18 conservation NGOs and was managed by The Nature Conservancy (TNC), the Association of Indonesian Primatologists (PERHAPPPI) and the Directorate of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation (PHKA), Ministry of Forestry. We aimed to answer the following research questions: (1) What are the demographic characteristics of the sampled human population? These figures varied slightly among provinces. There was a highly significant association between reported conflict and killing. A range of estimates were obtained for the total killing rate in Kalimantan. 72 of 2005, which excludes cities. For example, when the question about the occurrence of agricultural conflicts (1 = yes; 2 = no; 3 = don't know) was answered ‘0’ or ‘na’, we changed it to ‘don't know’. Elevation and distance to the nearest river system were also calculated. (2011) Quantifying Killing of Orangutans and Human-Orangutan Conflict in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Wrote the paper: DB YH KM EM. The same trends were observed among all reliable respondents, with reported killing rates of 4% (n = 167/4249), 20% (n = 42/171) and 23% (n = 23/79) associated with no conflict, less frequent conflict and more frequent conflict, respectively. Still, such studies are suggestive for present hunting levels only and there are no quantitative data on hunting that could support the hypothesis that hunting is currently a major factor in the decline of orangutan populations. SUBSCRIBE for more videos ! 71% had resided there for at least 20 years and 27% for at least 40 years. This finding has important implications for policymakers and law enforcements. Among reliable respondents who had encountered an orangutan around the village, the killing rate was much higher among those who reported that orangutans were protected by customary law (15%) compared with those who reported that they were not (10%) and those who did not know (7%). Among those who provided the number of orangutans that had been killed, most (73%) reported 1 animal killed, 24% reported 2 or 3 killed, and 4% reported more than three. Analyzed the data: DB YH KM HW JAW EM. Orangutans are killed throughout Kalimantan in numbers that appear far above maximum take off rates for viable populations. While exact orangutan population counts are always a challenge – various estimates put current counts at between 50,000-65,000 orangutans left in the wild – we do know with certainty that 2,000 to 3,000 orangutans are killed every These figures were then multiplied by 1717/687 and a further adjustment was made to account for reliable respondents. The madam of the house shaved her every other day , producing pimples and countless mosquito bites, her skin becoming horribly infected. Correction: Quantifying Killing of Orangutans and Human-Orangutan Conflict in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation Project, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia, Affiliation Although this province has a higher total forest cover compared to the other two provinces, high rates of conflict occur in an area that was mostly deforested in the 1980s, but still contains orangutans in a matrix of pulp and paper as well as oil palm plantations and a few remaining stands of degraded forest [24]. The Nature Conservancy – Indonesia Forest Program, Jakarta, and Bogor, Indonesia, Because we lacked empirical data on these factors, we did not use a village-size based correction factor. Utami-Atmoko SS, Correction: Quantifying Killing of Orangutans and Human-Orangutan Conflict in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Finally, a finite population correction factor was applied to account for the large sample: √((N-n)/(N-1)) where n is the sample size and N is the population size. Vous pouvez modifier vos choix à tout moment dans vos paramètres de vie privée. Interviewer bias was controlled by training and the possibility of interviewers inventing data was taken into account. They are either threatened by habitat degradation and deforestation, or they are threatened by ongoing hunting within their forest habitats. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Importantly, even though many orangutans appear to be killed every year, most people never kill one, and most that do have killed only one or a few orangutans in their lifetimes. Further inferences about the nature of the relationship between reported conflict and killing are difficult, since the numbers of respondents in these analyses are small and the questions did not allow substantive causal relationships to be drawn. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. ; (5) What is the nature of knowledge of Indonesian and customary (indigenous) law among survey respondents, and how is this related to reported killing? The ability of a villager to reliably identify an orangutan depends on a number of factors, including having ever seen one, familiarity with other similar species, access to televised broadcasts, and so on. In brief, the survey comprised a 40% sample of the 1717 villages in the sampling frame (the area hypothesised to encompass the full range of orangutan in Kalimantan; 558 villages in West Kalimantan, 976 in Central Kalimantan, 183 in East Kalimantan), stratified by high/medium/low threat of land-use change. ©2020 FOX News Network, LLC. Effective wildlife and nature conservation requires balancing human development with the impacts this has on wildlife populations and their habitats [1]. The estimated annual and total killing rates of orangutans and their spatial patterns are highly worrying. On a total population of some 42500 animals in Kalimantan [25], this would imply annual female take off rates between 0.9 and 3.6%. Pour autoriser Verizon Media et nos partenaires à traiter vos données personnelles, sélectionnez 'J'accepte' ou 'Gérer les paramètres' pour obtenir plus d’informations et pour gérer vos choix. Limitations of the study results arising from potential biases have been addressed by Meijaard et al. Binary and multinomial responses were fitted using a logistic regression model with all explanatory variables entered. Results of the regression analyses are reported as relative probabilities and relative risks. Unless effective countermeasures are implemented, we anticipate further killings in the near future. We thank Peter Kareiva and Robert Lalasz for their help in writing and structuring this manuscript, three anonymous reviewers for providing detailed and constructive input for improving our manuscript, the Directorate of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation of the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry for supporting our study, and the Association of Indonesian Primatologists (PERHAPPI) for coordinating the studies. These results give rise to two ranges: between 750 and 1790 for the number of orangutan killed in the last year; between 1970 and 3100 for the average number of orangutan killed per year in the orangutan's 2004 distribution range in Kalimantan within the lifetime of the respondents. :) Abonnez vous et suivez nous sur facebook pour plus de videos et photos ! Estimates of the overall rate of killing of orangutans were as follows. We are most grateful to our many respondents for taking the time to discuss with us their views on conservation in Kalimantan. Yayasan Dian Tama, Pontianak, Indonesia, Affiliation How these patterns interact with socio-cultural factors remains unclear, but the data suggest that no orangutans outside Kalimantan's protected areas are safe.