We will synthesise the health effects at a population level and also at subgroup level with regard to health inequalities (e.g. 2005;20(2):187–93. Adding inequality terminology reduced the number of hits further to ca. Table 1 gives an indication of the type of interventions which this review may highlight. The welfare state is potentially an important macro-level determinant of health that also moderates the extent, and impact, of socio-economic inequalities in exposure to the social determinants of health. BMJ. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. As the model shows, policies and programs play an important role in health improvement through their influence on health factors as well as health outcomes. 2015). For example, a recent study of workplace wellness conducted by the RAND Corporation found that participation in a workplace wellness program continuously over a seven-year period was associated with an average reduction of $30 in monthly health care costs per employee. J Epidemiol Commun H. 2010;64(4):284–91. strip essential benefits and pre-existing conditions from coverage policies, , (4) provide age-based tax credits for middle-income and older Americans to purchase insurance in the exchanges; and (5) redistribute tax credits from lower and middle-income to wealthier Americans (, ). Any discrepancies will be resolved through discussion between the two reviewers, and, if consensus is not reached, with the project lead (CB). Maidenhead: Open University Press; 2013. This article is part of the HiNEWS project—Health Inequalities in European Welfare States—funded by the NORFACE (New Opportunities for Research Funding Agency Cooperation in Europe) Welfare State Futures programme (grant reference: 462-14-110). Article  An umbrella review methodology is an increasingly used technique in public health and medical research but is seldom used in the evaluation of institutional policies or the social determinants of health [24, 25]. The proposed search terms used in the search strategy are shown in Additional file 2. Umbrella reviews are an established method of locating, appraising and synthesising systematic reviews [24]. The review also adds to the literature that conceptualises public health regulation as one of the three tiers of the welfare state—alongside health care access/provision and social policy [14]. Bambra C, Hillier F, Moore H, Cairns-Nagi J-M, Summerbell C. Tackling inequalities in obesity: a protocol for a systematic review of the effectiveness of public health interventions at reducing socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among adults. The search strategy will be adapted for each of the specific databases; an example for Medline (Ovid) is shown in Additional file 2. Next, population-level intervention terms were added (pilot 2). Understanding the impact of specific public health policy interventions will help to establish causality in terms of the effects of welfare states on population health. Thus, together with pre-ACA population health research, population health scientists can provide evidence of Obamacare’s impact and also set a comparative mark for how population health could be affected in the ACA era. Share this: Tweet; More A United Nations report released in 2017 puts the current world population at 7.6 billion people. Secondary outcomes relate to health inequalities in terms of gender, ethnicity and socio-economic status (defined as individual income, wealth, education, employment or occupational status, benefit receipt; as well as area-level economic indicators). Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Health Information Research Unit. 2013;2(1):27. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. These factors yielded an imperfect implementation, with politically blue states generally opting in and red states often opting out. Twenty-seven percent of Latino adults and 16 percent of black adults remain uninsured compared to 13 percent of “other” people of color and 11 percent of whites (Artiga et al. Law and policy are among the most effective tools to improve health. Accessed 29th February 2016. Towards a politics of health. Footman K, Garthwaite K, Bambra C, McKee M. Quality check: does it matter for quality how you organize and pay for health care? July 14, 2017 - Population health management has become a must-have competency for healthcare providers of all types, sizes, and specialties. Most immigrants were also ineligible for Medicaid, meaning that up to 13 percent of the population has remained excluded by law from Obamacare (Joseph 2017). Bristol: Policy Press; 2012. p. 143-63. Authors will be contacted to obtain any relevant information that is missing. [10] undertook a rapid review searching only one database (Medline) and identified 12 reviews meeting their inclusion criteria. Socio-economic inequalities are associated with unequal exposure to social, economic and environmental risk factors, which in turn contribute to health inequalities. Understanding the impact of specific public health policy interventions will help to establish causality in terms of the effects of welfare states on population health and health inequalities. Such discrimination may also affect these groups’ overall health, increasing ethno-racial health disparities. 2015;4(1):1–9. Reviews: search filters for MEDLINE in Ovid syntax and the PubMed translation. Healthcare Concern Presentation June 15, 2019 Off All, Description Purpose The purpose of this assignment is to provide a summary of the presentation to the elected official, report on the response/outcome and to propose future strategies for the continued advocacy of the selected healthcare concern. Social Inequality and Public Health. To complement these searches, citation follow-up from the bibliographies and reference lists of all included articles will be conducted. doi:10.2190/HS.43.3.b. “Health Care, Immigrants and Minorities: Lessons from the Affordable Care Act in the United States.” Special Issue of the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Co-guest Editors, published online June 12. Extensive RAND research offers insights about the likely impact of repealing or revising the ACA along key dimensions, including Medicaid, the individual mandate, effects on employers, tax subsidies, changing rating regulations, and essential health benefits. Because many immigrants and potential Medicaid expansion beneficiaries in opt-out states are low-income and people of color, ACA successes are further tempered along class, racial, and ethnic lines. The categories were impact on health policy or on a healthcare organisation, informing practice or clinician behaviour, a combined category covering policy and clinician impact, and impact on health gain, patient benefit, improved care or other benefits to the healthcare system. This review will therefore help identify effective interventions that could be implemented to reduce health inequalities between and within European countries. J Clin Epidemiol. 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