135 Ross, Folklore of the Scottish Highlands, 2000, p95-96. Alongside all of this is the idea of the dead living amongst the daoine sìth, and here again is something that doesn’t fit entirely comfortably within a Christian context. Either way, it was not the done thing to acknowledge their help, unless it is hoped that they might go away. 131 Evans-Wentz, The Fairy Faith in Celtic Countries, 1911, p120; Koch, Encyclopedia of Celtic Culture, 2006, p730. Golden yellow manes. 25 Ó hÓgáin, The Lore of Ireland, 2006, p179. Otherwise the daoine sìth might enter and make work for themselves, and become angry or cause mischief if there wasn’t enough work for them to do.68 Thanking them for their help would cause great offence (or thanking them with gifts or offerings disproportionate to the amount of work done), and at best the daoine sìth would leave and never return (but more likely cause trouble before doing so). 37 Henderson and Cowan, Scottish Fairy Belief, 2001, p19. It was the fault of the daoine sìth, not the parents. Another reason given was that mixing in humans with the daoine sìth might help them overcome their fear of iron – the symbol of their weakness and their downfall against humans in the first place. Some elderly folk said that those who had many deceased friends had many friends amongst the daoine sìth.28 But sometimes the belief in the souls of the departed as being amongst the ranks of the daoine sìth is reconciled in a different manner – these are not young folk, taken to enrich the blood of fallen angels, but the souls of those who are not morally good enough to go straight to heaven, nor yet bad enough to go to hell. Generally they cause little trouble, and might even allow themselves to be milked during times of famine; but the water bull usually has an altogether more dangerous reputation.136. 12 Yeats, Fairy and Folk Tales of the Irish Peasantry, 1888, p1. In Old Irish, the word síd can refer to either an ‘Otherworld hill or mound,’ or else ‘peace.’2 Modern forms of this word, and words describing the occupants of those Otherworldly places in Irish and Scots Gaelic, both draw etymologically from the Old Irish. 77 Ó hÓgáin, The Lore of Ireland, 2006, p209. Often, eventually, they did.74. Because of this, even though such trees might be found in otherwise inconvenient positions in the middle of fields and the like, it is unlucky to cut or harm them in any way, for it will offend the daoine sìth.59 Many tales illustrate the harm that can befall anyone who might try to cut or chop down a fairy thorn, and often the ill-fate is foreshadowed by the tree itself bleeding as it is cut. Logan, The Old Gods, 1981, p90-91. 95 Ó Súilleabháin, Irish Folk Custom and Belief, 1967, p90-91. Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). In human form, the each uisge is the most beautiful man a girl has ever seen, and while she may ordinarily be virtuous, there is something about the each uisge that makes even the most innocent lass throw caution – and virtue – to the wind. One reason we’ve already seen is that the human children could help to introduce their red blood and so eventually future generations of the daoine sìth could enter back into heaven. In Man, the fynnoderee (or phynodderee) is one of the best known types of daoine sìth, and are seen to act as a type of brownie – helping or hindering around the house, but generally considered to be benevolent rather than malicious.131 There is also the buggane (elf, goblin), which is mischievous and mostly harmless like the púca;132 and there is the glashtyn or glashan, a water horse which is similar to the Scots kelpie or the each uisge (water horse – also found in Ireland).133, The water horse of Irish tradition – the each uisce – was one of the commonest types of fairy beast. 106 Logan, The Old Gods: The Truth about Irish Fairies, 1981, p12. The milk should be given to to the clach na gruagaich, ‘the gruagach stone’, which is often described as a stone with a hole of depression in it. 130 Henderson and Cowan, Scottish Fairy Belief, 2001, p15. All in all, however, not ever member of the daoine sìth was considered to be a soul of the dead – instead, they were generally seen as a minority amongst the ranks of the daoine sìth. The advent of iron, brought by the invaders who displaced them, might be seen as the primary reason for their being pushed to the sidelines (since their own technology couldn’t possibly compete against such advanced and superior weaponry) is often given as the reason for the aversion of the daoine sìth to it. In most cases, their origins seem to be outside of Christian doctrine, and so a pre-Christian one is a reasonable explanation.116 It should also be noted that especially in the case of Scottish fairy beings, not all are necessarily Celtic in origin, given the amount of influence from the Scandinavian areas in particular – the trows of Orkney, the brunaidh, selkies all have clear origins, or influences from elsewhere at the least. Gifts – or afflictions – such as the second sight and the evil eye were therefore seen as not just Otherworldly, but rooted in demonic origins; likewise, those considered to have Otherworldly gifts of musicianship or knowledge of healing were equally viewed with suspicion.101, All in all, the standard type of daoine sìth (who live in the local síd mound, for example) looks much like any ordinary human – the same, or similar, in height and demeanour, although often slightly paler in skin tone (perhaps from living underground, or because of their white blood).102 They can, however, shapeshift easily, usually in the forms of animals or birds.103.